After trying all the permutations of pages and posts, I cannot get posts to appear on the home page. One post’s link doesn’t even appear in the page heads.
When you go to Appearance > Customize > Homepage Settings, you should see a setting labeled, “Your homepage displays”. There are two options: “Your latest posts,” or “A static page”.
If you choose “Your latest posts,” your blog posts should appear on your homepage.
If you choose “A static page,” you’ll be presented two additional drop-down menus you can use to specify which page to use as your homepage, and which page to use as your blog. After specifying these two pages, you’ll find that your homepage displays static content, while all of your blog posts will appear when you visit the page you specified to use as your blog.
This process is covered in this tutorial video, part of the WordPress 101 series…
One other note to consider if you use the static homepage option… you may also have to manually create a Custom Menu and add your new blog page to your menu, or you won’t have a way to navigate to your blog page.
This tutorial video covers how to create a Custom Menu in WordPress…
I hope this helps point you in the right direction!